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Artichokes grow best in full sun. They can tolerate some shade, but the flower buds will suffer somewhat.
Artichokes prefer a sandy, well-drained but fertile soil. A pH slightly on the alkaline side is best. Slightly sandy soil (think: Mediterranean) is ideal. Good drainage is crucial to prevent the roots from rotting, especially in areas where they will be overwintered. However, the soil must also be able to retain water long enough to allow the roots to take it in during hot summers.
When growing artichokes as perennials, it is especially important to amend the soil before planting to ensure they will grow well in future years. If your garden soil is poor, consider growing your artichokes in raised beds.
Water frequently and deeply, one to three times a week. This will keep flower buds fleshy and tender and develop a strong root system that will keep the plants upright.
Temperature and Humidity
This plant prefers warm weather that is relatively dry, such as that found in the Mediterranean region and in California. Excessive heat will cause the plant to bloom prematurely. When grown as perennials, artichokes favour areas with mild winters (10 to 15 degrees C) and cool, moist summers (21 to 26 degrees C). Very hot soil will make the plants flower too quickly, so apply a thick mulch around the base of the plants to keep the soil cool.
Apply a balanced vegetable plant food every two weeks throughout the growing season.
How to Grow Artichokes From Seed
Start seeds indoors, at least eight weeks before your last frost date. Harden off the seedlings before planting them outside, but don’t wait until all danger of frost has passed—artichokes need to experience a slight chilling (not freezing) before they will set buds. This can be accomplished by putting your plants out in mid-spring and exposing them for a week to 10 days to temperatures of about 10 degrees C or a little lower.
If you try saving seed from your artichokes, they may not grow true, producing plants that vary greatly from your original plant. You will have better success with purchased seed that has been grown under controlled conditions.
Source: https://www.thespruce.com/tips-for-growing-artichokes-1403455 accessed 14 June 2021